This selection of homeopathic Materia Medicas will be supplemented in the months to come. We are planning to include homeopathic encyclopedias of renowned homeopaths such as S.R. Phatak and John Henry Clarke and, above all, the groundbreaking Materia Medica Pura by Samuel Hahnemann.
A summary of the main results of this investigation is given in Figure 1. The mean percentage values for all the mice of the treated groups confirms the increase due to diazepam but not due to G. sempervirens dilutions in the LD paradigm (panels (a) and (b)) and the significant increase due to all the tested homeopathic dilutions/dynamizations of G. sempervirens in the OF-tested variables (panels (c) and (d)).
The finding of a drug-induced increase in the distance traveled in the center of the arena, but not in the total distance traveled, suggests that the effects of G. sempervirens in our model system are anxiolytic rather than sedative or otherwise affecting animal locomotion. Since we used a control vehicle as a placebo in all experiments, the effects cannot be attributed to the very low dose of ethanol present in the final operating solutions, unlike in certain previous studies where the use of alcohol as vehicle for homeopathic preparations might have been able to produce some background effects in behavioral tests . A further methodological issue that reinforces our findings is the systematic use of blinding, a procedure rarely employed in animal research, but which is worthwhile especially when testing hypotheses that are apparently in contrast with conventional scientific wisdom, such as the very existence of biological activity of solutions diluted beyond the Avogadro limit.
However, the results of the second series of experiments indicate that the drug may be active also at ultra-high dilutions/dynamizations. From our data (Figure 1) the 30 CH dilution/dynamization appears to be the most active in the OF variables, and these apparently paradoxical results require further confirmation. Indeed, at 30 CH, there is no active principle in this dilution/dynamization and further basic evidence will be necessary to make this observation acceptable. There is growing evidence in the literature that rodents are responsive to very high dilutions/dynamizations in immunological [30, 31] and behavioral [11, 32] models. If confirmed, these effects on mouse behavior would be much more coherent with the homeopathic paradigm and with traditional homeopathic medicine than initially expected.
Taken together, our data suggest that the effects of G. sempervirens at homeopathic dilutions on unconditioned mouse behavioral responses concern the exploratory attitude of the animals, a parameter that is better brought out by the OF test. Mouse behavior in the OF test is affected by various factors such as individual testing (since mice are social animals), neophobia (emotional response to a novel environment) and agoraphobia (being in an exposed setting from which there is no easy means of escape). In our experimental conditions G. sempervirens showed positive effects on these parameters, and the effect observed in the OF test fits very well with the classical archetype of the G. sempervirens. Materia Medica, according to which individuals who respond to this medicine are characterized by experiencing strong discomfort when confronted with novelty or unfamiliar situations.
In conclusion, homeopathic doses of G. sempervirens positively influence the emotional responses of mice to novel environments, suggesting an improvement in exploratory behavior and a decrease in thigmotaxis or neophobia. The study provides a basic knowledge of the pharmacological effects of G. sempervirens and can implement the clinical research on the anxiolytic effect of this drug on humans, which are based only on empirical knowledge but not on fundamental evidence supplied by controlled investigations.
Background: Lycopodium clavatum (Lyc) is a widely used homeopathic medicine for the liver, urinary and digestive disorders. Recently, acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity has been found in Lyc alkaloid extract, which could be beneficial in dementia disorder. However, the effect of Lyc has not yet been explored in animal model of memory impairment and on cerebral blood flow. 1e1e36bf2d